houckanderson.com › PONS Wörterbuch › Englisch» Deutsch. Die arabische Sprache (Arabisch, Eigenbezeichnung اَللُّغَةُ اَلْعَرَبِيَّة, DMG al-luġatu l-ʿarabiyya ‚die arabische Sprache', kurz العربية, DMG al-ʿarabiyya ‚das. Domari also kept a contrast between /p/ and /b/, not found in Arabic: biróm 'I feared vs. pirom 'I drank'. As far as vowels are concerned, Levantine Arabic exhibits.
Information in ArabicMany translated example sentences containing "Arabic" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Many translated example sentences containing "Arabic language" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Modern Standard Arabic. MODERNES HOCHARABISCH. 0,00 € Warenkorb. Home · e-Edition · Nachhilfe · Login. Menü. Home · e-Edition · Nachhilfe · Login.
Arabic Arabic script VideoArabic alphabet song 3 - Alphabet arabe chanson 3 - 3 أنشودة الحروف العربية
Also, the pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic differs significantly from region to region. According to Charles A. Although many other features are common to most or all of these varieties, Ferguson believes that these features in particular are unlikely to have evolved independently more than once or twice and together suggest the existence of the koine:.
Other changes may also have happened. Classical Arabic pronunciation is not thoroughly recorded and different reconstructions of the sound system of Proto-Semitic propose different phonetic values.
One example is the emphatic consonants, which are pharyngealized in modern pronunciations but may have been velarized in the eighth century and glottalized in Proto-Semitic.
Early Akkadian transcriptions of Arabic names shows that this reduction had not yet occurred as of the early part of the 1st millennium BC. The Classical Arabic language as recorded was a poetic koine that reflected a consciously archaizing dialect, chosen based on the tribes of the western part of the Arabian Peninsula , who spoke the most conservative variants of Arabic.
Most of these changes are present in most or all modern varieties of Arabic. An interesting feature of the writing system of the Quran and hence of Classical Arabic is that it contains certain features of Muhammad's native dialect of Mecca, corrected through diacritics into the forms of standard Classical Arabic.
Although Classical Arabic was a unitary language and is now used in Quran, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country.
It is influenced by colloquial dialects. The "colloquial" spoken dialects of Arabic are learned at home and constitute the native languages of Arabic speakers.
Both varieties can be both written and spoken, although the colloquial varieties are rarely written down and the formal variety is spoken mostly in formal circumstances, e.
Even when the literary language is spoken, however, it is normally only spoken in its pure form when reading a prepared text out loud and communication between speakers of different colloquial dialects.
When speaking extemporaneously i. In fact, there is a continuous range of "in-between" spoken varieties: from nearly pure Modern Standard Arabic MSA , to a form that still uses MSA grammar and vocabulary but with significant colloquial influence, to a form of the colloquial language that imports a number of words and grammatical constructions in MSA, to a form that is close to pure colloquial but with the "rough edges" the most noticeably "vulgar" or non-Classical aspects smoothed out, to pure colloquial.
The particular variant or register used depends on the social class and education level of the speakers involved and the level of formality of the speech situation.
Often it will vary within a single encounter, e. This type of variation is characteristic of the diglossia that exists throughout the Arabic-speaking world.
Although Modern Standard Arabic MSA is a unitary language, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country.
The variation in individual "accents" of MSA speakers tends to mirror corresponding variations in the colloquial speech of the speakers in question, but with the distinguishing characteristics moderated somewhat.
It is important in descriptions of "Arabic" phonology to distinguish between pronunciation of a given colloquial spoken dialect and the pronunciation of MSA by these same speakers.
Although they are related, they are not the same. Another reason of different pronunciations is influence of colloquial dialects. The differentiation of pronunciation of colloquial dialects is the influence from other languages previously spoken and some still presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, Berber , Punic , or Phoenician in North Africa, Himyaritic , Modern South Arabian , and Old South Arabian in Yemen and Oman, and Aramaic and Canaanite languages including Phoenician in the Levant and Mesopotamia.
In many spoken varieties, the backed or "emphatic" vowel allophones spread a fair distance in both directions from the triggering consonant; in some varieties most notably Egyptian Arabic , the "emphatic" allophones spread throughout the entire word, usually including prefixes and suffixes, even at a distance of several syllables from the triggering consonant.
Speakers of colloquial varieties with this vowel harmony tend to introduce it into their MSA pronunciation as well, but usually with a lesser degree of spreading than in the colloquial varieties.
For example, speakers of colloquial varieties with extremely long-distance harmony may allow a moderate, but not extreme, amount of spreading of the harmonic allophones in their MSA speech, while speakers of colloquial varieties with moderate-distance harmony may only harmonize immediately adjacent vowels in MSA.
The pronunciation of the vowels differs from speaker to speaker, in a way that tends to reflect the pronunciation of the corresponding colloquial variety.
Nonetheless, there are some common trends. The point is, Arabic has only three short vowel phonemes, so those phonemes can have a very wide range of allophones.
The definition of both "emphatic" and "neighborhood" vary in ways that reflect to some extent corresponding variations in the spoken dialects.
Many dialects have multiple emphatic allophones of each vowel, depending on the particular nearby consonants. In most MSA accents, emphatic coloring of vowels is limited to vowels immediately adjacent to a triggering consonant, although in some it spreads a bit farther: e.
Generally this corresponds with the pronunciation in the colloquial dialects. In fact, it also exists in a few other minority Semitic languages, e.
This simultaneous articulation is described as "Retracted Tongue Root" by phonologists. Vowels and consonants can be phonologically short or long.
Long geminate consonants are normally written doubled in Latin transcription i. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice as long as short consonants.
The syllable types with two morae units of time , i. There are no cases of hiatus within a word where two vowels occur next to each other, without an intervening consonant.
When actually pronounced, one of three things happens:. Word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic.
It bears a strong relationship to vowel length. The basic rules for Modern Standard Arabic are:.
These rules may result in differently stressed syllables when final case endings are pronounced, vs. Some dialects have different stress rules.
This also affects the way that Modern Standard Arabic is pronounced in Egypt. In this dialect, only syllables with long vowels or diphthongs are considered heavy; in a two-syllable word, the final syllable can be stressed only if the preceding syllable is light; and in longer words, the final syllable cannot be stressed.
The final short vowels e. The following levels of pronunciation exist:. This is the most formal level actually used in speech. All endings are pronounced as written, except at the end of an utterance, where the following changes occur:.
This is a formal level of pronunciation sometimes seen. It is somewhat like pronouncing all words as if they were in pausal position with influence from the colloquial varieties.
The following changes occur:. This is the pronunciation used by speakers of Modern Standard Arabic in extemporaneous speech, i.
It is similar to formal short pronunciation except that the rules for dropping final vowels apply even when a clitic suffix is added.
Basically, short-vowel case and mood endings are never pronounced and certain other changes occur that echo the corresponding colloquial pronunciations.
The extent of emphasis spreading varies. For example, in Moroccan Arabic, it spreads as far as the first full vowel i. In most dialects, there may be more or fewer phonemes than those listed in the chart above.
Pharyngealization of the emphatic consonants tends to weaken in many of the spoken varieties, and to spread from emphatic consonants to nearby sounds.
As a result, it may difficult or impossible to determine whether a given coronal consonant is phonemically emphatic or not, especially in dialects with long-distance emphasis spreading.
As in other Semitic languages, Arabic has a complex and unusual morphology i. Arabic has a nonconcatenative "root-and-pattern" morphology: A root consists of a set of bare consonants usually three , which are fitted into a discontinuous pattern to form words.
For example, the word for 'I wrote' is constructed by combining the root k-t-b 'write' with the pattern -a-a-tu 'I Xed' to form katabtu 'I wrote'.
Other verbs meaning 'I Xed' will typically have the same pattern but with different consonants, e. From a single root k-t-b , numerous words can be formed by applying different patterns:.
Nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical cases nominative , accusative , and genitive [also used when the noun is governed by a preposition] ; three numbers singular, dual and plural ; two genders masculine and feminine ; and three "states" indefinite, definite, and construct.
Plural is indicated either through endings the sound plural or internal modification the broken plural. Adjectives in Literary Arabic are marked for case, number, gender and state, as for nouns.
Pronouns in Literary Arabic are marked for person, number and gender. There are two varieties, independent pronouns and enclitics.
Enclitic pronouns are attached to the end of a verb, noun or preposition and indicate verbal and prepositional objects or possession of nouns.
Nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives agree with each other in all respects. However, non-human plural nouns are grammatically considered to be feminine singular.
Furthermore, a verb in a verb-initial sentence is marked as singular regardless of its semantic number when the subject of the verb is explicitly mentioned as a noun.
Numerals between three and ten show "chiasmic" agreement, in that grammatically masculine numerals have feminine marking and vice versa. Verbs in Literary Arabic are marked for person first, second, or third , gender, and number.
They are conjugated in two major paradigms past and non-past ; two voices active and passive ; and six moods indicative , imperative , subjunctive , jussive , shorter energetic and longer energetic , the fifth and sixth moods, the energetics, exist only in Classical Arabic but not in MSA.
The past and non-past paradigms are sometimes also termed perfective and imperfective , indicating the fact that they actually represent a combination of tense and aspect.
The past and non-past differ in the form of the stem e. In Modern Standard, the energetic mood in either long or short form, which have the same meaning is almost never used.
Like other Semitic languages , and unlike most other languages, Arabic makes much more use of nonconcatenative morphology applying many templates applied roots to derive words than adding prefixes or suffixes to words.
For verbs, a given root can occur in many different derived verb stems of which there are about fifteen , each with one or more characteristic meanings and each with its own templates for the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun.
These stems encode grammatical functions such as the causative , intensive and reflexive. Stems sharing the same root consonants represent separate verbs, albeit often semantically related, and each is the basis for its own conjugational paradigm.
As a result, these derived stems are part of the system of derivational morphology , not part of the inflectional system. Form II is sometimes used to create transitive denominative verbs verbs built from nouns ; Form V is the equivalent used for intransitive denominatives.
The associated participles and verbal nouns of a verb are the primary means of forming new lexical nouns in Arabic.
This is similar to the process by which, for example, the English gerund "meeting" similar to a verbal noun has turned into a noun referring to a particular type of social, often work-related event where people gather together to have a "discussion" another lexicalized verbal noun.
Another fairly common means of forming nouns is through one of a limited number of patterns that can be applied directly to roots, such as the "nouns of location" in ma- e.
The spoken dialects have lost the case distinctions and make only limited use of the dual it occurs only on nouns and its use is no longer required in all circumstances.
They have also mostly lost the indefinite "nunation" and the internal passive. The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic through Nabatean , to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic scripts to Greek script.
However, the old Maghrebi variant has been abandoned except for calligraphic purposes in the Maghreb itself, and remains in use mainly in the Quranic schools zaouias of West Africa.
Arabic, like all other Semitic languages except for the Latin-written Maltese, and the languages with the Ge'ez script , is written from right to left.
Finally signs known as Tashkil were used for short vowels known as harakat and other uses such as final postnasalized or long vowels. After Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi finally fixed the Arabic script around , many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Quran and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration.
Arabic calligraphy has not fallen out of use as calligraphy has in the Western world, and is still considered by Arabs as a major art form; calligraphers are held in great esteem.
Being cursive by nature, unlike the Latin script, Arabic script is used to write down a verse of the Quran, a hadith , or simply a proverb.
The composition is often abstract, but sometimes the writing is shaped into an actual form such as that of an animal. One of the current masters of the genre is Hassan Massoudy.
In modern times the intrinsically calligraphic nature of the written Arabic form is haunted by the thought that a typographic approach to the language, necessary for digitized unification, will not always accurately maintain meanings conveyed through calligraphy.
There are a number of different standards for the romanization of Arabic , i. There are various conflicting motivations involved, which leads to multiple systems.
Some are interested in transliteration , i. Some systems, e. Other systems e. These are usually simpler to read, but sacrifice the definiteness of the scientific systems, and may lead to ambiguities, e.
During the last few decades and especially since the s, Western-invented text communication technologies have become prevalent in the Arab world, such as personal computers , the World Wide Web , email , bulletin board systems , IRC , instant messaging and mobile phone text messaging.
Most of these technologies originally had the ability to communicate using the Latin script only, and some of them still do not have the Arabic script as an optional feature.
As a result, Arabic speaking users communicated in these technologies by transliterating the Arabic text using the Latin script, sometimes known as IM Arabic.
To handle those Arabic letters that cannot be accurately represented using the Latin script, numerals and other characters were appropriated.
There is no universal name for this type of transliteration, but some have named it Arabic Chat Alphabet. Other systems of transliteration exist, such as using dots or capitalization to represent the "emphatic" counterparts of certain consonants.
In most of present-day North Africa, the Western Arabic numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are used. When representing a number in Arabic, the lowest-valued position is placed on the right, so the order of positions is the same as in left-to-right scripts.
Sequences of digits such as telephone numbers are read from left to right, but numbers are spoken in the traditional Arabic fashion, with units and tens reversed from the modern English usage.
For example, 24 is said "four and twenty" just like in the German language vierundzwanzig and Classical Hebrew , and is said "a thousand and nine-hundred and five and seventy" or, more eloquently, "a thousand and nine-hundred five seventy".
Academy of the Arabic Language is the name of a number of language-regulation bodies formed in the Arab League. The most active are in Damascus and Cairo.
They review language development, monitor new words and approve inclusion of new words into their published standard dictionaries. They also publish old and historical Arabic manuscripts.
Arabic has been taught worldwide in many elementary and secondary schools, especially Muslim schools. Universities around the world have classes that teach Arabic as part of their foreign languages , Middle Eastern studies , and religious studies courses.
Arabic language schools exist to assist students to learn Arabic outside the academic world. There are many Arabic language schools in the Arab world and other Muslim countries.
Because the Quran is written in Arabic and all Islamic terms are in Arabic, millions [ citation needed ] of Muslims both Arab and non-Arab study the language.
Software and books with tapes are also important part of Arabic learning, as many of Arabic learners may live in places where there are no academic or Arabic language school classes available.
Radio series of Arabic language classes are also provided from some radio stations. With the sole example of Medieval linguist Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati — who, while a scholar of the Arabic language, was not ethnically Arab — Medieval scholars of the Arabic language made no efforts at studying comparative linguistics, considering all other languages inferior.
In modern times, the educated upper classes in the Arab world have taken a nearly opposite view. Yasir Suleiman wrote in that "studying and knowing English or French in most of the Middle East and North Africa have become a badge of sophistication and modernity and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the general language macrolanguage. For specific varieties of Arabic and other uses, see Arabic disambiguation. Semitic language.
Language family. Modern Standard Arabic. Writing system. Signed forms. Dispersion of native Arabic speakers as the majority dark green or minority light green population.
Further information: Classification of Arabic languages. Main article: Old Arabic. Main articles: Old Hijazi and Classical Arabic.
Play media. See also: List of Arabic dictionaries. See also: List of Arabic loanwords in English. Main article: Varieties of Arabic.
Main article: Arabic phonology. See also: Literary Arabic phonology. Further information: Varieties of Arabic. Main article: Arabic grammar.
Main article: Modern Standard Arabic. Main articles: Arabic alphabet and Arabic Braille. Fennig eds. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth edition.
Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 12 February Oxford Dictionaries - English. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history.
Wikimedia Commons. Western Maghrebi Central incl. Egyptian , Sudanese Northern incl. Levantine , Iraqi Southern incl. Arabic The Arabic script evolved from the Nabataean Aramaic script.
There are two main types of written Arabic: Classical Arabic - the language of the Qur'an and classical literature. It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic.
All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur'an in the original language, however many rely on translations in order to understand the text.
It is the language of the vast majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc. Additional letters are used when writing other languages.
The only exceptions to this rule are crossword puzzles and signs in which the script is written vertically. Vowel diacritics, which are used to mark short vowels, and other special symbols appear only in the Qur'an.
They are also used, though with less consistency, in other religious texts, in classical poetry, in books for children and foreign learners, and occasionally in complex texts to avoid ambiguity.
Sometimes the diacritics are used for decorative purposes in book titles, letterheads, nameplates, etc. Arabic script Arabic consonants The transliteration of consonants used above is the ISO version of Source: www.Ibn Warraq ed. Varieties of Arabic. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice Meistgezogene Lottozahlen 2021 long as short consonants. It is somewhat like pronouncing all words as Arabic they were in pausal position with influence from the colloquial varieties. Poetry's imperfections prove his points that they cannot be compared with the fluency the Quran holds. Language family. ArabsArab-BerbersAfro-Arabsamong others. Archived from the original on 27 September Stems sharing the same root consonants represent separate verbs, Arabic often semantically related, and each is the basis for its own conjugational paradigm. As Spiele Zum Thema Tiere result, some Egyptians pushed for an Egyptianization of the Arabic language in which the formal Arabic and the colloquial Arabic would be combined into one language and the Latin alphabet would be used. Although Modern Standard Arabic MSA is a unitary language, its pronunciation varies somewhat Kartenspiel 17 Und 4 country to country and from region to region within a country. The repetition of certain words and phrases made them appear more firm and explicit in the Quran. Arabic are various conflicting motivations involved, which leads to multiple systems. American Braille obsolete. Archived Spielautomaten Gebraucht the original on 27 September We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'?